Common types

Any and Nothing

Every type is a subtype to Any, written x <: Any for all types x. Equivalently, any place that Any is valid, any other type can be used. Any is also known as the "Top" type.

Conversely, there are no types that are subtypes to Nothing. However for all types x it holds that Nothing <: x. Put another way, Nothing is a valid type to give use in positions expecting any other type. In practice, Nothing is not as useful as Any, and is usually used internally to detect dead code and other code properties.

Functions

core.typed has a special function type, which is an ordered intersection of arities. It allows us to specify fine grained function invariants.

Starting simply,

(Fn [Any -> Any])

is a function taking one argument of type Any. [Any -> Any] is an equivalent shorthand for single-arity function types.

Multiple arities

We can specify multiple arities:

(Fn [Any -> Any]
    [Any Any -> Any])

Here we can call a function of this type with either one or two arguments. In this case, the ordered intersection type acts as a simple overloading on arity.

Finer invariants can be expressed by specifying multiple signatures of the same arity:

(Fn [Symbol -> Number]
    [Number -> Symbol])

This function returns a Number if passed a Symbol, and returns a Symbol if passed a Number.

The exact return type for a function application expression involving multiple arities is chosen by matching the actual types provided with each arities, top-to-bottom (this explains why our functions are "ordered" intersections). In this case, each arity is disjoint because no combination of arguments could potentially trigger both arities. More concretely, there is no type that is both a Symbol and a Number, so at most one arity triggers for any given arguments.

Overlapping arities hints at the power of ordered intersections.

(Fn [Long -> Symbol]
    [Number -> Keyword])

This type always returns a Symbol for Long arguments.

Beware, swapping the arities produces different results!

(Fn [Number -> Keyword]
    [Long -> Symbol])

The first arity always "wins" because Number is strictly more general than Long. Arities are usually ordered from more-specific parameters to less-specific parameters.

What about arities that have partially overlapping parameters? Consider:

(Fn [Long Any -> Keyword]
    [Any Number -> Symbol])

Calling with Long Long arguments gives Keyword, and Number Long gives Symbol.

Flipping the arities gives different results:

(Fn [Any Number -> Symbol]
    [Long Any -> Keyword])

Now Long Long gives Symbol, and Number Long gives Symbol. Partially overlapping arities can be tricky and can unexpectedly trigger earlier arities, so care must be taken here.

Finally, a common idiom is to provide a base arity, which has arguments at least as general as the ones above it.

For example, we might want our function of type (Fn [Long -> Symbol] [Number -> Keyword]) to handle the case where the argument is either a Long or a Number. We can express this by using a union (to express a least-upper-bound of Long and Number).

(Fn [Long -> Symbol]
    [Number -> Keyword]
    [(U Long Number) -> (U Symbol Keyword)])

Note the result type is sufficiently general to show the result type is either a Symbol or Keyword.

Rest parameters

Rest parameters are specified using a *.

eg.

(Fn [Any Number * -> Any])

is a function taking at least one parameter, and any number of parameters after it of type Number.

Keyword parameters

Keyword parameters are specified using & after the fixed domain.

eg.

(Fn [Any & {:a Number} -> Any])

is a function that takes a fixed parameter and an optional keyword argument :a, of type Number.

We can also specify mandatory keyword parameters:

(Fn [Any & {} :mandatory {:a Number} -> Any])

is the same function, except the keyword argumetn :a now must be present when calling.

We can express finer grained invariants by combining keyword types and ordered function intersection types:

(Fn [Any & {} :mandatory {:a Number :b Number} -> Number]
    [Any & {:a Number :b Number} -> Any])

This function type returns a Number if provided both :a and :b parameters, otherwise returns Any if some other combination of :a and :b is provided.

Java Classes

core.typed reuses Java and clojure.lang.* classes. The normal scoping rules apply in types, e.g., use :import to bring classes into scope.

Note: java.lang.* classes are implicitly in scope in Clojure namespaces.

Numbers, Strings and other Java types

core.typed follows the normal rules that apply to Clojure code.

clojure.core.typed=> (cf 1 Long)
java.lang.Long
clojure.core.typed=> (cf 1.1 Double)
java.lang.Double
clojure.core.typed=> (cf "a" String)
java.lang.String
clojure.core.typed=> (cf \a Character)
java.lang.Character

Symbols and Keywords

Symbols and Keywords are instances of their corresponding clojure.lang classes.

clojure.core.typed=> (cf 'a clojure.lang.Symbol)
clojure.lang.Symbol
clojure.core.typed=> (cf :a clojure.lang.Keyword)
clojure.lang.Keyword

Seqables

Seqables extend (Seqable a), which is covariant in its argument. Types that extend (Seqable a) are capable of creating a sequence (aka. an (ISeq a)) representation of itself via functions like seq.

clojure.core.typed=> (cf {'a 2 'b 3} (Seqable (IMapEntry Symbol Number)))
(clojure.lang.Seqable (clojure.lang.IMapEntry clojure.lang.Symbol java.lang.Number))
clojure.core.typed=> (cf [1 2 3] (Seqable Number))
(clojure.lang.Seqable java.lang.Number)
clojure.core.typed=> (cf '#{a b c} (Seqable Symbol))
(clojure.lang.Seqable clojure.lang.Symbol)

Seqs

Seqs extend (ISeq a), which is covariant in its argument.

clojure.core.typed=> (cf (seq [1 2]) (ISeq Number))
(clojure.lang.ISeq java.lang.Number)

Lists

Lists extend (IPersistentList a), which is covariant in its argument.

clojure.core.typed=> (cf '(1 2) (IPersistentList Number))
(clojure.lang.IPersistentList java.lang.Number)

Vectors

Vectors extend (IPersistentVector a), which is covariant in its argument.

clojure.core.typed=> (cf [1 2] (IPersistentVector Number))
(clojure.lang.IPersistentVector java.lang.Number)

Maps

Maps extend (IPersistentMap a b), which is covariant in both its arguments.

clojure.core.typed=> (cf {'a 1 'b 3} (IPersistentMap Symbol Long))
(clojure.lang.IPersistentMap clojure.lang.Symbol java.lang.Long)

Sets

Sets extend (IPersistentSet a), which is covariant in its argument.

clojure.core.typed=> (cf #{1 2 3} (IPersistentSet Number))
(clojure.lang.IPersistentSet java.lang.Number)

Atoms

An Atom of type (Atom w r) can accept values of type w and provide values of type r. It is contravariant in w and covariant in r.

Usually w and r are identical, so an alias (clojure.core.typed/Atom1 wr) is provided, which is equivalent to (Atom wr wr).

clojure.core.typed=> (cf (atom {}) (Atom1 (IPersistentMap Symbol Number)))
(clojure.core.typed/Atom1 (clojure.lang.IPersistentMap clojure.lang.Symbol java.lang.Number))

Type Grammar

A rough grammar for core.typed types.

Type :=  nil
     |   true
     |   false
     |   (U Type*)
     |   (I Type+)
     |   FunctionIntersection
     |   (Value CONSTANT-VALUE)
     |   (Rec [Symbol] Type)
     |   (All [Symbol+] Type)
     |   (All [Symbol* Symbol ...] Type)
     |   (HMap {Keyword Type*})        ;eg (HMap {:a (Value 1), :b nil})
     |   '{Keyword Type*}              ;eg '{:a (Value 1), :b nil}
     |   (Vector* Type*)
     |   '[Type*]
     |   (Seq* Type*)
     |   (List* Type*)
     |   Symbol  ;class/protocol/free resolvable in context

FunctionIntersection :=  ArityType
                     |   (Fn ArityType+)

ArityType :=   [FixedArgs -> Type]
           |   [FixedArgs RestArgs * -> Type]
           |   [FixedArgs DottedType ... Symbol -> Type]

FixedArgs := Type*
RestArgs := Type
DottedType := Type

Types

Value shorthands

nil, true and false resolve to the respective singleton types for those values

Intersections

(I Type+) creates an intersection of types.

Unions

(U Type*) creates a union of types.

Functions

A function type is an ordered intersection of arity types.

There is a vector sugar for functions of one arity.

Heterogeneous Maps

Warning: Heterogeneous maps are alpha and their design is subject to change.

A heterogeneous map type represents a map that has at least a particular set of keyword keys.

clojure.core.typed=> (cf {:a 1})
[(HMap {:a (Value 1)}) {:then tt, :else ff}]

This type can also be written '{:a (Value 1)}.

Lookups of known keys infer accurate types.

clojure.core.typed=> (cf (-> {:a 1} :a))
(Value 1)

Currently, they are limited (but still quite useful): - the presence of keys is recorded, but not their absence - only keyword value keys are allowed.

These rules have several implications.

Absent keys

Looking up keys that are not recorded as present give inaccurate types

clojure.core.typed=> (cf (-> {:a 1} :b))
Any

Non-keyword keys

Literal maps without keyword keys are inferred as APersistentMap.

clojure.core.typed=> (cf {(inc 1) 1})
[(clojure.lang.APersistentMap clojure.core.typed/AnyInteger (Value 1)) {:then tt, :else ff}]

Optional keys can be defined either by constructing a union of map types, or by passing the HMap type constructor an :optional keyword argument with a map of optional keys.

Heterogeneous Vectors

(Vector* (Value 1) (Value 2)) is a IPersistentVector of length 2, essentially representing the value [1 2]. The type '[(Value 1) (Value 2)] is identical.

Polymorphism

The binding form All introduces a number of free variables inside a scope.

Optionally scopes a dotted variable by adding ... after the last symbol in the binder.

eg. The identity function: (All [x] [x -> x]) eg. Introducing dotted variables: `(All [x y ...] [x y ... y -> x])

Recursive Types

Rec introduces a recursive type. It takes a vector of one symbol and a type. The symbol is scoped to represent the entire type in the type argument.

; Type for {:op :if
;           :test {:op :var, :var #'A}
;           :then {:op :nil}
;           :else {:op :false}}
(Rec [x] 
     (U (HMap {:op (Value :if)
               :test x
               :then x
               :else x})
        (HMap {:op (Value :var)
               :var clojure.lang.Var})
        (HMap {:op (Value :nil)})
        (HMap {:op (Value :false)})))))